Name: Guignardia citricarpa Kiely. Anamorph: Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) Van der Aa (macroconidial state). Synonyms: Phoma citricarpa McAlpine. Citrus black spot is a fungal disease caused by Guignardia citricarpa. This Ascomycete fungus affects citrus plants throughout subtropical climates, causing a. Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales () [MB#].

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Total soluble solids were unaffected in black spot affected fruit, but acid was lower Anon. The second method is to apply urea or ammonium to the leaf litter. Hard spots are the most common lesions. Host-Plant Resistance Sour orange Citrus aurantium is one of the few species of citrus that is resistant to black spot. Studies on Sphaeropsidales in culture. The black spot disease of citrus and its control in South Africa. Do not apply more than Goes A de, Feitchtenberger E, Pests and diseases of citrus fruits and treatments recommended in Sofala and Tete.

Contact our curators Dr. The anamorph probably plays only a minor role in the disease cycle Timmer, ; Kotze, Postharvest Fruit from black spot-infested groves often bear quiescent infections that may later develop into black spot lesions in transport or at the final destination Hall, Journal of the Korean Society for Horticultural Science, 34 4: Don’t need the entire report?

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Guignardia differs from Botryosphaeria in having unilocular ascomata, smaller ascospores and different anamorphs. Leaf lesions are uncommon on most citrus but may be more frequent on lemons. Preharvest sprays of benzimidazole fungicides are effective in preventing or delaying symptom expression during transport or storage Nam et al. However, a specially convened panel of eminent scientists from Brazil, Argentina, the USA, Uruguay, Australia and South Africa concluded that there is no risk of transmission through fruit to European climates.

Pseudothecial development in decomposing leaves occurs from 40 to days after leaf fall, depending on the frequency of wetting and drying.

Fungicides must be chosen carefully to minimize the possible development of resistance. For further information, we recommend you visit the following resources: The lesions of hard spot generally occur on mature fruit and are several millimeters in diameter. These trees must be removed because those that are declining and stressed will often guihnardia off season bloom.

Because of this direct damage to the fruit, this type of lesion can be economically devastating.

Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Some attempts have been made to produce tolerant hybrids using sour orange as a source of resistance Anon.

The importance of dispersal by fruit has been questioned since the fungus produces only water-dispersed conidia on symptomatic fruit Kotze, Bergamin Filho, and B.

Guignardia citricarpa

This is used when first reloading the page. Cultural and morphological comparison on Phoma citricarpa and P. Control and epiphytology of black spot of citrus.


Mechanical removal of leaf litter from the orchard floor reduces disease pressure and facilitates control, but is costly. Conidia produced on fruit can be washed down through the canopy and infect leaves and younger guignarrdia that are still at the susceptible stage.

Citrus black spot

However, conidia produced on dead leaves can only reach susceptible fruit and leaves by splash dispersal into the canopy. In Brazil, infections seem to occur to varying degrees throughout the susceptible period and fruit must be protected from petal fall to mid-summer Ugignardia, Sanctioned by Sanctioning name Validated by Type specimen or ex type More specimens Human pathogenicity code Plant pathogenicity code Code toxicity. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

The teleomorph of the citricarla taxa produce fitricarpa of the same size and shape when grown on potato dextrose agar with plant tissue. To confirm a diagnosis of Citrus Black Spot, the pathogenic fungus must be isolated in culture.

Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, See below for more information.